This cosmology monograph is a brief mathematical and physical description of the growth of the universe over the past 14 billion years. Although most cosmologists insist that Einstein’s General Relativity theory must be used to examine the problem, the present author has found that classical math and physics are adequate and preferable. The book is readable for high school graduates majoring in the physical sciences.
Cosmology is in a state of confusion. The flatness problem deals with the delicate balance between expansion (due to unknown forces) and gravitational collapse. Why is the universe so uniform if parts of it are causally disconnected? What caused the density fluctuations that led to the formation of galaxies? What is the source of dark matter in our galaxies? Is there a cosmological constant responsible for universe expansion? Is the multi-parameter Friedmann description of the universe a suitable model?
The hypersphere universe model has only one parameter (age) to be decided from experiment, is closed (positively curved), and yields analytical equations which are simple functions of redshift (measured). The 3D hypersphere expands at the speed of light in a 4th dimension (time) and describes universe radius, proper distances, luminosity distance, curved light trajectories (photon paths), galaxy recession velocity, Hubble parameter, time of light emission, radiation temperature, and galactic width. An enormous amount of measured data has been used to verify model estimates.